Afonya Akim and Aleksei Andrei, April 02, 2016.
It is generally assumed that;
- Tajik Pamiris are following Ismaili School of Shia Islam that basically had roots in the Iranian Azerbaijan at the age of there 46th Imam.
- Tajik Pamiris and Iranian Azerbaijanis are settled in the areas which connect two different regions. Gorno-Badakhshan connects South and Central Asia while, Iranian Azerbaijan connects Asia and Europe.
- Iranian Azerbaijanis and Tajik Pamiris are speaking Persian Language.
- Both regions were once the part of Persian Empire.
Unlike all these similarities, Iranian role in Gorno-Badakhshan’s independence movement is considered as just its pragmatic approach. Iran although tried to install its revolutionary sentiments in the Tajik Pamiris but exposed. Similarly, although, Tajik Pamiris have religious association with the Al-Amout mountainous area in Iranian Azerbaijan but usually they never visit that place. At the same time, There is no ethnic relation or marital relations between both communities. Therefore, we can not link both communities with each other regarding their independence movements. They have separate cause. However, it is generally assumed that both movements are indirectly supporting by Pro-Soviet thoughts of contemporary Russia but, apparent Iran-Russia and Tajik-Russia relations do not prove this hypothesis.
Zainab Zaryab, August 18, 2017.
According to different surveys, the ethno-linguistic ratio in the Balochistan during 2017 is analyzed as bellow;
- Because of Afghan settlements, Pashtun population is covering 52% of the whole population in the province.
- Baloch people are ethnically undermined, have 43% ratio of whole population.
- Brahui people are 3.1% of the entire population.
- Urdu speaking are 0.3% in the province.
- Sindhis are 0.7%.
- Saraikis are 0.2%.
- Punjabis have been migrated to Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa due to the violence and extrimism exhibited by some illiterate, ignorant and triggered Baloch people. Now, they are just 0.01%.
- Persian (Hazargi) people are 0.64% of the whole population in the province.
- Others are 0.05%.
This analysis is assumed on the basis of several surveys. Among which, some reference based websites are given below:
This analysis can be totally different from the actual census report of Pakistan 2017 but, till the publication of that report, we can just reply on private surveys and assumptions (even accepted by rejected by any organization or political party).
Ayub Khakwani, April 28, 2010.
- It constructed out from Indian Socialist Party
- The First Opposition Party in Pakistan at the time of partition
- It was secular socialist but had faith upon democratic process
- It opposed the idea of Islamic Socialism given by Liaqat Ali Khan in 1949
- It supported Pakistan’s stance upon Kashmir. Therefore, Indian Socialist Party cut off all its ties from Pakistan Socialist Party.
- Its weekly journal was named “Socialist Weekly”
- In West Pakistan, this party played a vital role in Punjab Pind Committess, but not in provincial politics.
- It occupied Pakistan Trade Union Federation in 1951 and renamed Pakistan Mazdoor Federation.
- In East Pakistan, it involved into provincial politics wih Awami League and other like-minded socialism-oriented parties. Their coalition was called United Front.
- Party firstly got decline because of divided into two groups. East Pakistan branch was supporting Awami League in Provincial Government while, West Pakistan branch was anti-Awami League regarding its role in federal politics.
- In 1958, when Bengali President Iskandar Mirza announced banning of all political parties, this party got finishing from national political sphere.
Kareemullah Khan, April 30, 2015
To analyze semi-presidential system under the 8th amendment and the 17th amendment in this constitution of 1973, it is examined that both military dictator were practicing Leninist attitude.
Although, Pakistan had anti-Bolshevik attitude before the implementation of the Constitution of 1973 but, the third constitution of 1973 showed that Pakistan had very much been inspired by the Bolshevism, and, it is ready to implement basic principles of Bolshevism with socio-cultural, political and religious norms.
On the other hand, Zia and Musharraf regime were made the political system more closure to the initial Bolshevik government in the Russia. While, President Ishaq Khan, President Farooq Laghari, President Rafiq Tarar and President Asif Ali Zardari also experienced such powers during their full or limited presidential tenures.
Naila Ashiq, March 08, 1989.
Since the emergence of Pakistan, Pakistan had two sort of political parties.
- Communist Party of Pakistan which was revolution-oriented Bolshevism-inspired party.
- Pakistan Socialist Party which was also Bolshevism-inspired but had believe on implementation of Bolshevism through electoral politics.
- Awami League was also Bolshevism-inspired but firstly it believed on electoral politics regarding implementation of Bolshevism. After establishment of Bangladesh, it tried to adopt rigid Bolshevism instead of supporting democratic channels. Therefore, public attitude suddenly changed against Awami League that resulted 1975 coup in Bangladesh.
On the other hand, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the first politician in Pakistan which was had Neo-Bolshevik attitude. He, at a time, followed Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, Social Democracy and Islamic Socialism which all are counted as the varying traits of Bolshevism; called Revised Bolshevism, Neo-Bolshevism or more specifically Bhuttoism. Similarly, he was not rigid Bolshevik. He was never revolution-oriented like Communist Party of Pakistan which claimed to be followed USSR-led communism. Therefore, under these varying traits of Bolshevism, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto founded Pakistan Peoples Party.
Compiled by Arun Baktash, June 12, 2017.
Generally, Bolshevism means the strategy developed by the Bolsheviks between 1903 and 1917 with a view to seizing state power and establishing a dictatorship of the proletariat.
According to Ephraim Nimni (1991) in his book “Marxism and Nationalism: Theoretical Origins of a Political Crisis”, A. Brown (2004) in his book “The Demise of Marxism-Leninism in Russia”, Max Eastman (2017) in his book “Marx, Lenin and the Science of Revolution”, and, N. de Basily (2017) in his book “Russia Under Soviet Role: Twenty Years of Bolshevik Experiment”, Bolshevism is basically Marxism-Leninism.
Moreover, Waldemar Gurian (1952) in his book “Bolshevism: An Introduction to Soviet Communism”, Ronald I. Kowalski (1991) in his book “Bolshevik Party in Conflict: The Left Communist Opposition of 1918” and Kevin Morgan (2006) in his book “Bolshevism and the British Left: The Webbs and Soviet communism” describe that Bolshevism is basically Soviet-Communism or Communism promoted by USSR.
While, Elizabeth White in her book (2010) “The Socialist Alternative to Bolshevik Russia” discussed that Bolshevism ended with the Stalinism, officially announced when Soviet Constitution of 1936 was implemented. This is also called Stalin Constitution.
On the other hand, Orlando Figes (2017) in his book “A People’s Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924” argues that Bolshevism ended with the death of Lenin in 1924.
Easy by Sufian bin Jafar (May 26, 2017)
According to the compilation of Surveys, initiated by Public Support Organization Pakistan and Saraiki Waseb Organization Pakistan, and, reported by the Daily Guman and the Daily Lehr-e-Sahil, major ethnic groups in the different units of Pakistan are counted during 2016 and 2017 are as follows:
Punjab: Punjabis, Saraikis and Pothoharis
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Pashtuns, Hindkowans, Kalash and Chitralis
Sindh: Sindhis, Muhajir and Siddis (Habshi)
Balochistan: Balochis, Brahui and Persians
Azad Kashmir: Kashmiris and Gujratis
Gilgit-Baltistan: Burusho, Khowar, Balti and Shina
While, estimated population of Pakistan is near about 196.7 million people till the May 22, 2017. This estimated is taken by the arithmetic mean of the all four results, presented by respective organizations and newspapers.